In this essay, Professor Ann McGinley explores a phenomenon she coins the Masculinity Motivation. Society and courts ignore that harassing behaviors and the motives behind them are nearly identical in schools and workplaces. Moreover, the motives driving same-sex harassment are often the same as those causing sex-based harassment of women and girls. These motives include proving the perpetrators' and their group's masculinity, punishing those who do not adhere to gender expectations, and upholding conventional gender norms. Professor McGinley advocates for courts to broadly define "because of sex" under Titles VII and IX by clarifying that harassment motivated to denigrate the victim for not complying with gender stereotypes and/or to raise the harassers' masculinity, occurs because of sex.
71 Stan. L. Rev. Online 99 (2018).
McGinley, Ann C., "The Masculinity Motivation" (2018). Scholarly Works. 1148.